In some countries, phytoestrogenic plants have been used for centuries in the treatment of menstrual and menopausal problems, as well as for fertility problems.  Plants used that have been shown to contain phytoestrogens include Pueraria mirifica ,  and its close relative, kudzu ,  Angelica ,  fennel and anise .  In a rigorous study, the use of one such source of phytoestrogen, red clover , has been shown to be safe, but ineffective in relieving menopausal symptoms  ( black cohosh is also used for menopausal symptoms, but does not contain phytoestrogens.  ) Panax Ginseng contains phytoestrogens and has been used for menopausal symptoms . [ citation needed ]
Endometriosis implants are most commonly found on the ovaries, the Fallopian tubes, outer surfaces of the uterus or intestines, and on the surface lining of the pelvic cavity. They also can be found in the vagina, cervix, and bladder. Endometriosis may not produce any symptoms, but when it does the most common symptom is pelvic pain that worsens just prior to menstruation and improves at the end of the menstrual period. Other symptoms of endometriosis include pain during sex, pain with pelvic examinations, cramping or pain during bowel movements or urination, and infertility.
Although different NSAIDs have different structures, they all work by blocking cyclo-oxygenase (COX) enzymes. There are two main types of COX enzymes: COX-1 and COX-2. Both types produce prostaglandins; however, the main function of COX-1 enzymes is to produce baseline levels of prostaglandins that activate platelets and protect the lining of the gastrointestinal tract, whereas COX-2 enzymes are responsible for releasing prostaglandins after infection or injury. Prostaglandins have a number of different effects, one of which is to regulate inflammation.