Nmr diffusion coefficient study of steroid cyclodextrin inclusion complexes

Although typical diffusion images have a spatial resolution of a few millimeters, they reflect events happening at the molecular level. As noted previously, when diffusing spins run into cellular constituents and membranes, the ADC value will be reduced when compared with diffusion in bulk water like cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). 24 Diffusion measurements become more complex when the structures restricting water diffusion have a structure themselves. For instance, axons restrict water diffusion perpendicular to their long axis, but not in the direction of the axon. This difference in magnitude of diffusion in different directions is referred to as diffusion anisotropy. What makes this more complex is that unless the axon is aligned with the imaging gradient, the reduction in signal will be seen in all 3 directions. When diffusion is to be measured in an anisotropic environment, diffusion tensor imaging is needed for a complete description.

Also, the diffusion coefficient, D {\displaystyle D} , is replaced by an apparent diffusion coefficient, A D C {\displaystyle ADC} , to indicate that the diffusion process is not free in tissues, but hindered and modulated by many mechanisms (restriction in closed spaces, tortuosity around obstacles, etc.) and that other sources of IntraVoxel Incoherent Motion (IVIM) such as blood flow in small vessels or cerebrospinal fluid in ventricles also contribute to the signal attenuation. At the end, images are "weighted" by the diffusion process: In those diffusion-weighted images (DWI) the signal is more attenuated the faster the diffusion and the larger the b factor is. However, those diffusion-weighted images are still also sensitive to T1 and T2 relaxivity contrast, which can sometimes be confusing. It is possible to calculate "pure" diffusion maps (or more exactly ADC maps where the ADC is the sole source of contrast) by collecting images with at least 2 different values, b 1 {\displaystyle b_{1}} and b 2 {\displaystyle b_{2}} , of the b factor according to:

Nmr diffusion coefficient study of steroid cyclodextrin inclusion complexes

nmr diffusion coefficient study of steroid cyclodextrin inclusion complexes

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