Glucocorticoids and 11beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in obesity and the metabolic syndrome

During minor illness (., flu or fever >38° C [° F]) the hydrocortisone dose should be doubled for 2 or 3 days. The inability to ingest hydrocortisone tablets warrants parenteral administration. Most patients can be educated to self administer hydrocortisone, 100 mg IM, and reduce the risk of an emergency room visit. Hydrocortisone, 75 mg/day, provides adequate glucocorticoid coverage for outpatient surgery. Parenteral hydrocortisone, 150 to 200 mg/day (in three or four divided doses), is needed for major surgery, with a rapid taper to normal replacement during the recovery. Patients taking more than 100 mg hydrocortisone/day do not need any additional mineralocorticoid replacement. All patients should wear some form of identification indicating their adrenal insufficiency status.

Bei der topisch-dermalen Anwendung werden die Wirkstoffe je nach Ausgangszustand der Haut in Lösungen, Salben , Cremes oder Fettsalben eingebracht. Zur Behandlung infizierter Effloreszenzen stehen Kombinationspräparate mit antibakteriellen oder antimykotischen Wirkstoffen zur Verfügung. Ist die Hautstelle stark schuppend , so kann zur Auflösung der Schuppen Harnstoff oder Salicylsäure (3-prozentig) beigemengt werden. Dies begünstigt auch die Resorption der Glucocorticoide. Zur Wirkverstärkung kann durch einen Okklusionsverband ein Aufweichen der oberen Hautschichten erreicht werden. [5]

[Continued from above] . . first line of defense and response to physical and emotional stresses. The adrenal glands are shaped like the French Emperor Napoleon's hat and, just as Napoleon's three-cornered hat sat on his head, so each gland is perched on each of the kidneys. These glands are about one to two inches in length; they weigh only a fraction of an ounce each yet are among the most productive of all of the body's glands, secreting more than three dozen hormones. The adrenal cortex takes instruction from the pituitary glands and have important effects on physical characteristics, development and growth. The adrenal gland has two parts. The cortex, or outer, yellow layer, takes its instructions from the pituitary hormone ACTH. The hormones secreted here are called steroids and have three main types: those which control the balance of sodium and potassium in the body; those which raise the level of sugar in the blood; and sex hormones. The inner, reddish brown layer of the adrenal gland (the adrenal medulla) makes two types of hormones; this part of the adrenal gland takes its instruction from the nervous system, producing chemicals which react to fear and anger and are sometimes called fight or flight hormones.

Journal of Neurology and Neuroscience , Insights in Clinical Neurology , Journal of Neuropsychiatry , Mental Health in Family Medicine , International Journal of Anesthesiology & Pain Medicine , Neuroscience & Clinical Research, Neuroinfectious Diseases, Basic and Clinical Neuroscience, Basic and Clinical Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience, BMC Neuroscience, Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, Cognitive Neuroscience, Affective and Behavioral Neuroscience, Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience, Curre nt Neurology and Neuroscience Reports, Current Protocols in Neuroscience, Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences, Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Developmental Neuroscience, Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience

Glucocorticoids and 11beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in obesity and the metabolic syndrome

glucocorticoids and 11beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in obesity and the metabolic syndrome

Journal of Neurology and Neuroscience , Insights in Clinical Neurology , Journal of Neuropsychiatry , Mental Health in Family Medicine , International Journal of Anesthesiology & Pain Medicine , Neuroscience & Clinical Research, Neuroinfectious Diseases, Basic and Clinical Neuroscience, Basic and Clinical Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience, BMC Neuroscience, Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, Cognitive Neuroscience, Affective and Behavioral Neuroscience, Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience, Curre nt Neurology and Neuroscience Reports, Current Protocols in Neuroscience, Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences, Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Developmental Neuroscience, Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience

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