East german entrenching tool

The training manual SS 143 of February 1917 marked the end of attacks made by lines of infantry with a few detached specialists. [18] The platoon was divided into a small headquarters and four sections, one with two trained grenade-throwers and assistants, the second with a Lewis gunner and nine assistants carrying 30 drums of ammunition, the third section comprised a sniper, scout and nine riflemen and the fourth section had nine men with four rifle-grenade launchers. [19] The rifle and hand-grenade sections were to advance in front of the Lewis-gun and rifle-grenade sections, in two waves or in artillery formation , which covered an area 100 yards (91 m) wide and 50 yards (46 m) deep, with the four sections in a diamond pattern, the rifle section ahead, rifle grenade and bombing sections to the sides and the Lewis gun section behind, until resistance was met. German defenders were to be suppressed by fire from the Lewis-gun and rifle-grenade sections, while the riflemen and hand-grenade sections moved forward, preferably by infiltrating round the flanks of the resistance, to overwhelm the defenders from the rear. [20]

In January 1944, partisan operational units left the northern part of east Serbia under pressure from occupiers and auxiliary forces. Bulgarian garrisons, some German police forces, and Serbian Quisling troops, all under German command, and Chetniks , mostly commanded by agreements with the Germans, remained in the area. Partisan forces made up of the 23rd and 25th Divisions returned to the central parts of east Serbia in July and August 1944, forming a free territory with a makeshift runway in Soko Banja , thus securing both air supply of arms and ammunition, and allowing evacuation of the wounded. After the coup in Romania, the importance of the northern part of east Serbia had grown for both sides. In a race against each other the Partisans were better positioned and faster. 23rd Division. in a fierce battle with German police battalions and auxiliary forces, took Zaječar on 7 September, and on 12 September entered Negotin , while the 25th Division unsuccessfully attacked Donji Milanovac at the same time. Volunteers were joining the units in large numbers increasing their size. A new, 45th Serbian Division was formed on 3 September, and on 6 September, 14 Corps headquarters was established as a high command for the area of operations.

Medals involve not only the metal itself but also the ribbon, and these materials are susceptible to damage from moisture, dust, sunlight, and changes in temperature. Museums keep medals in locations with regulated temperature, humidity, and light levels to minimize discoloration and deterioration. At home, collectors should keep medals clean and dry, and should store them in a location that is not prone to extreme temperatures. Damp conditions corrode the metals and rot the ribbons, while high temperatures make ribbons go brittle. Acid-free cardboard boxes are a good storage solution, but wooden boxes coated with polyurethane resin are also acceptable. Collectors should avoid polishing medals, as the polish causes abrasion, and they should always wear gloves when handling the medals.

At Arusha the first inspection of a company of Askari was held, The spirit and discipline of the black unit revealed the admirable education they had received at the hands of my predecessor, Colonel Freiherr von Schleuntz; but, m accordance with the hitherto accepted principles of thieir employment, their training for lighting against an enemy with modern armament had been developed to a lesser degree. Like the majority of the Askari companies, this company was still armed with the old 1871 pattern rifle, using smoky powder. The opinion was widely held that for black troops this was more suitable than a modern rifle with smokeless powder, for they had hitherto never been employed against an opponent with modern armament, but only in native warfare, where the larger caliber is an advantage, while the disadvantage of smoke is of no consequence. After the outbreak of war, indeed, the enthusiastic supporters of the 1871 rifle changed their minds. Against an enemy provided with modern smokeless equipment the smoky rifle was, not only at the long ranges obtaining in the open plain, but also in bush-fighting, where the combatants are often but. a few paces apart, decidedly inferior. The man using smokeless powder remains invisible, while the cloud of smoke betrays the enemy with rapidity and certainty, not only to the sharp eye of the native Askari, but even to the European accustomed to office work. Thus, at the beginnig of the war, the greatest reward which could be earned by an Askari was to give him a modern captured rifle in place of his old smoky one.

East german entrenching tool

east german entrenching tool

At Arusha the first inspection of a company of Askari was held, The spirit and discipline of the black unit revealed the admirable education they had received at the hands of my predecessor, Colonel Freiherr von Schleuntz; but, m accordance with the hitherto accepted principles of thieir employment, their training for lighting against an enemy with modern armament had been developed to a lesser degree. Like the majority of the Askari companies, this company was still armed with the old 1871 pattern rifle, using smoky powder. The opinion was widely held that for black troops this was more suitable than a modern rifle with smokeless powder, for they had hitherto never been employed against an opponent with modern armament, but only in native warfare, where the larger caliber is an advantage, while the disadvantage of smoke is of no consequence. After the outbreak of war, indeed, the enthusiastic supporters of the 1871 rifle changed their minds. Against an enemy provided with modern smokeless equipment the smoky rifle was, not only at the long ranges obtaining in the open plain, but also in bush-fighting, where the combatants are often but. a few paces apart, decidedly inferior. The man using smokeless powder remains invisible, while the cloud of smoke betrays the enemy with rapidity and certainty, not only to the sharp eye of the native Askari, but even to the European accustomed to office work. Thus, at the beginnig of the war, the greatest reward which could be earned by an Askari was to give him a modern captured rifle in place of his old smoky one.

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